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VICTORY Is Not Defeat

Its Shari’ah, Stupid #3


This is the third in a series of posts quoting fiqh from a censored forum. The text of the Jihad Violence thread has been preserved in a .chm (163.4KB) file which you can download here. It is among the resources in the expanded library at Crusader’s Armory.

al-Shafi’i, d. 820, founder of shafi’i school. al-Imam Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shaf’i’s al-Risala fi us ul al-fiqh, transl. Majid Khadduri, al-Imam Muhammad ibn Idris al-shaf’i’s al-risala fi us ul al-fiqh: Treatises on the Foundations of Islamic jurisprudence (Cambridge 1997), p. 82-7.


These communications (9:112, 9:36, 9:5, 9:29, 9:38-9, 9:41) mean that the jihad, and rising up in arms in particular, is obligatory for all able-bodied [believers], exempting no one, just as prayer, pilgrimage and [payment of] alms are performed […] They may also mean that the duty of [jihad] is a collective (kifaya) duty different from that of prayer: Those who perform it in the war against the polytheists will fulfil the duty and receive the supererogatory merit, thereby preventing those who stayed behind from falling into error. […]

If all men failed to perform the duty so that no able-bodied man went forth to battle, all I am afraid, would fall into error.


“Rising up in arms” is not consistent with defensive fighting; it implies aggressive Jihad.  Defensive fighting, when Dar ul-Islam is invaded, is fard ayn: an obligation binding upon all able bodied Muslims individually. Aggressive Jihad is fard kifaya. Refer to Reliance of the Traveller, O9.1 & O9.3.

“If all men failed to perform the duty so that no able-bodied man went forth to battle, all I am afraid, would fall into error.”
Jihad is an obligation; it must be done according to Allah’s commands. What commands? Those cited in the Shari’ah.

  • 9:5. Then when the Sacred Months (the Ist, 7th, 11th, and 12th months of the Islamic calendar) have passed, then kill the Mushrikun (see V.2:105) wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush. But if they repent and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
  • 9:29Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.
  • 9:36. Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are Sacred, (i.e. the 1st, the 7th, the 11th and the 12th months of the Islamic calendar). That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein, and fight against the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) collectively , as they fight against you collectively. But know that Allah is with those who are Al-Muttaqun (the pious – see V.2:2).
  • 9:38. O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to march forth in the Cause of Allah (i.e. Jihad) you cling heavily to the earth? Are you pleased with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared with the Hereafter.
  • 9:39. If you march not forth, He will punish you with a painful torment and will replace you by another people, and you cannot harm Him at all, and Allah is Able to do all things.
  • 9:41.March forth, whether you are light (being healthy, young and wealthy) or heavy (being ill, old and poor), strive hard with your wealth and your lives in the Cause of Allah. This is better for you, if you but knew.
  • 9:112. (The believers whose lives Allah has purchased are) those who repent to Allah (from polytheism and hypocrisy, etc.), who worship Him, who praise Him, who fast (or go out in Allah’s Cause), who bow down (in prayer), who prostrate themselves (in prayer), who enjoin (people) for Al-Ma’ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all what Islam has ordained) and forbid (people) from Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism of all kinds and all that Islam has forbidden), and who observe the limits set by Allah (do all that Allah has ordained and abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which Allah has forbidden). And give glad tidings to the believers.

The last listed, 112, must be understood in the context of its immediate predecessor.

  • 9:111. Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties; for the price that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah’s Cause, so they kill (others) and are killed. It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) and the Qur’an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success .

What do believers do and why?

What will Allah do to them if they do not join the Jihad?

  • Inflict painful punishment {Cast them into Hell.}
  • replace them with someone else.

January 7, 2009 Posted by | Religion of Peace | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Jihad: Conclusion


In Part 1, we compared ten translations of 2:216, which ordains fighting and makes it mandatory for Muslims. We consulted Ibn Kathir’s tafsir of that ayeh:  Jihad is made Obligatory, and learned that:

  1. Fighting is obligatory, not optional, Allah ordained it.
  2. Jihad is required from every person,
    1. to march forth
    2. to aid
    3. to support
  3. Fighting is difficult and an emotional burden; includes:
    1. being killed
    2. wounded
    3. striving against the enemy
    4. hardship of travel.
  4. Fighting is good for you; has benefits:
    1. followed by victory
    2. dominance over the enemy
    3. taking his:
      1. lands
      2. money
      3. wives & children.
  5. Refraining from fighting has negative consequences:
    1. dispossession
    2. dominance by the enemy.

In Part 2, we examined 8:39 and its tafsir, wherein we learned that Muslims are commanded to fight Pagans & disbelievers until there is no more resistance and only Allah is worshiped.

From 8:57 & 8:60, we got the first hints of the linkage between Jihad and terrorism. Defeated Kuffar are to be severely punished as a warning to others and maximum force is to be accrued to threaten them.

From 8:65, we learned of the urge to fight, and from 8:67 we learned of the mandate of genocide. and from Sahih Muslim19.4327, we learned that Moe obtained special dispensation to accrue spoils of war, relating to the title of the Surah.

In Part 3,  we explored 9:29, learning that Muslims are commanded to fight Jews & Christians until they are subjugated and pay extortion. We confirmed that by consulting Ibn Kathir’s Tafsir: The Order to fight People of the Scriptures until They give the Jizyah.

In 9:33 and its tafsir: Islam is the Religion That will dominate over all Other Religions, we learned that Islam must and will dominate all religions.

In 9:38…41 we learned the urgency & importance of marching forth in Jihad, how failure to do so will be punished.

In Part 4, we looked into Sharia, found in  The Reliance of the Traveller, discovering ample confirmation of the definition of Jihad, its declaration & execution of war against Pagans and Jews & Christians. We learned that Jihad must be performed annually and confirmed that fact from statements by Al-Ghazali & Al-Shafi’i.

In Part 5, we examined 9:111, learning the relationship between Allah and Muslims, which is master: slave. We discovered that Allah purchased the Muslims so that they fight in his cause, kill others and are killed.

From As-Saff 10-13, we learned what Muslims must do to be saved; to escape Hellfire and enter Paradise: they must participate in Jihad.

From Abu Dawud Book 14, Number 2526, we learned that: jihad will be performed continuously since the day Allah sent me as a prophet until the day the last member of my community will fight with the Dajjal (Antichrist). Meaning, from 610 to the end of the world.

From Abu Dawud Book 23, Number 3455, we learned what will happen to Muslims if they abandon Jihad for productive pursuits: “Allah will make disgrace prevail over you, and will not withdraw it until you return to your original religion. ”  Whereby we know that Jihad and Islam are synonymous.

October 7, 2008 Posted by | GWOT, Islam, Jihad, Politics, Religion, Religion of Peace | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Jihad: Part 3


In the previous installment, we learned that Surah A-Anfal confirms rather than abrogates 2:216. We learned that the Surah really is about war booty and warmongering designed to bring in more.  Now we turn to Surah Al-Taubah: repentance & dispensation. Too many Muslims lagged behind when Moe and his companions marched on Tabuk. This Surah is about cussing them out; making them renew their oaths of alliegience to Moe. But it is more than that, it is a declaration of war.

9:29.Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allâh, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allâh and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islâm) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

(Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the People of the Scripture,) This honorable Ayah was revealed with the order to fight the People of the Book, after the pagans were defeated, the people entered Allah’s religion in large numbers, and the Arabian Peninsula was secured under the Muslims’ control. Allah commanded His Messenger to fight the People of the Scriptures, Jews and Christians, on the ninth year of Hijrah, and he prepared his army to fight the Romans and called the people to Jihad announcing his intent and destination. The Messenger sent his intent to various Arab areas around Al-Madinah to gather forces, and he collected an army of thirty thousand. Some people from Al-Madinah and some hypocrites, in and around it, lagged behind, for that year was a year of drought and intense heat. The Messenger of Allah marched, heading towards Ash-Sham to fight the Romans until he reached Tabuk, where he set camp for about twenty days next to its water resources. He then prayed to Allah for a decision and went back to Al-Madinah because it was a hard year and the people were weak, as we will mention, Allah willing. The Order to fight People of the Scriptures until They give the Jizyah

Once again, we see that the Qur’an says what it means and means what it says.  Allah commanded his messenger to fight Jews and Christians.

9:33. It is He Who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad) with guidance and the religion of truth (Islâm), to make it superior over all religions even though the Mushrikûn (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh) hate (it).

(This matter (Islam) will keep spreading as far as the night and day reach, until Allah will not leave a house made of mud or hair, but will make this religion enter it, while bringing might to a mighty person (a Muslim) and humiliation to a disgraced person (who rejects Islam). Might with which Allah elevates Islam (and its people) and disgrace with which Allah humiliates disbelief (and its people).) Tamim Ad-Dari ﴿who was a Christian before Islam﴾ used to say, “I have come to know the meaning of this Hadith in my own people. Those who became Muslims among them acquired goodness, honor and might. Disgrace, humiliation and Jizyah befell those who remained disbelievers.”  Islam is the Religion That will dominate over all Other Religions

9:38. O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to march forth in the Cause of Allâh (i.e. Jihâd) you cling heavily to the earth? Are you pleased with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared with the Hereafter.
9:39. If you march not forth, He will punish you with a painful torment and will replace you by another people, and you cannot harm Him at all, and Allah is Able to do all things.
9:41. March forth, whether you are light (being healthy, young and wealthy) or heavy (being ill, old and poor), strive hard with your wealth and your lives in the Cause of Allâh. This is better for you, if you but knew.

Far from abrogating the mandate to fight, Surah Al-Taubah confirms and amplifies it. A new command to fight Jews & Christians is added, along with potent complaints and threats against those who refuse to fight.

In the next installment, we will look for confirmation in Sharia, Islamic law.

October 7, 2008 Posted by | GWOT, Islam, Politics, Religion, Religion of Peace | , , , , , , | Leave a comment

   

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