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Its Shari’ah, Stupid #25


This series of posts quoting various Islamic Jurists’ Fiqh on offensive Jihad is derived from FOMI’s Offensive Jihad Thread, which I saved prior to the forum’s censorship by the Swedish government.  The Offensive Jihad Thread is preserved in FOMIJihad.chm.

Sharia: the path to the living waters;  threatening to drown the world in blood. It is Islamic law, derived from Allah’s word and Moe’s Sunnah, the constitution & precedent.

Umdat as-Salik wa ‘Uddat an-Nasik (Reliance of the Traveller and Tools of the Worshipper, also commonly known by its shorter title Reliance of the Traveller) is a classical manual of fiqh for the Shafi’i school of Islamic jurisprudence.”  Here is the Wikipedia entry.

The book is about 1200 pages long. While you can search it at Muhaddith,  there are some limitations to the search. The text has been posted an an educational site.  I suggest using the Ctrl F search function to find what you are seeking if you go here and delve into it: http://www.nku.edu/~kenneyr/Islam/Reliance.html .

Scribid displays a scanned image of the book. Somehow they arranged a means of searching it, which works much faster than I expected. Of course you can’t cut and paste from it, but it should be useful for verifying content found in other sources.

Allah.com displays a text file, so you can copy & paste. That will facilitate using quotes in blog posts. Unfortunately, they renamed and rearranged the books, and added a half dozen.  Two columns are displayed, on the left, a list of the books and a code for deciphering  the original names. Book O is transmuted to Book 9. Links to the entry points are in the right hand column.

Offensive Jihad is fard Kifaya, a communal obligation jointly binding on all capable male Muslims until a sufficient number are recruited. This concept is raised in quotes from several Jurists. Numbers in parenthesis refer to order in this series of posts.

  • al-Shafi’i (3)
  • Ibn Qudama (8)
  • Ibn Taymiyya (9)
  • al-Misri (12)
  • Molla Khosrew (13)
  • Shykh Zeenu’d-Din (14)
  • Fadl-Ullah bin Ruzbihan Isfahani (15)
  • Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (23)
  • Hasan al-Banna (24)

Fard denotes obligatory religious duty.  Fard al-ayn  is binding on all individuals, such as the five daily prayers. Fard al-kifaya is a communal obligation. The obligation to attack Kuffar is fard al-kifaya.  The obligation to repulse invaders is fard al-ayn..

The duty to attack Kuffar is particularly addressed to the Imam. This is raised by several of our Jurists.

  • al-Mawardi (5)
  • al-Ghazali (6)
  • Ziauddin Barani (11)
  • Ziauddin Barani  (13)
  • Ziauddin Barani (15)
  • Shah Wali-Allah (19)
  • Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (23)

Several of the rulings we examined mention the ayat which make offensive Jihad obligatory.

Three of these are well worth review.

  • 9:29. Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allâh, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allâh and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islâm) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.
  • 9:38. O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to march forth in the Cause of Allâh (i.e. Jihâd) you cling heavily to the earth? Are you pleased with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared with the Hereafter.
  • 9:39 If you march not forth, He will punish you with a painful torment and will replace you by another people, and you cannot harm Him at all, and Allah is Able to do all things.

Allah commanded Muslims to fight Jews & Christians. He reprimanded those who refused, threatening them with Hellfire and luring them with the promise of Paradise.

Umdat as-Salik tells us what the Caliph does and why:

O9.8: The Objectives of Jihad

The caliph (o25) makes war upon Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians (N: provided he has first invited them to enter Islam in faith and practice, and if they will not, then invited them to enter the social order of Islam by paying the non-Muslim poll tax (jizya, def: o11.4) -which is the significance of their paying it, not the money itself-while remaining in their ancestral religions) (O: and the war continues) until they become Muslim or else pay the non-Muslim poll tax (O: in accordance with the word of Allah Most High,

Fight those who do not believe in Allah and the Last Day and who forbid not what Allah and His messenger have forbidden-who do not practice the religion of truth, being of those who have been given the Book-until they pay the poll tax out of hand and are humbled” (Koran 9.29),

The Caliph makes war on “people of the Book” because Allah ordered it in 9:29.  Later in the chapter, the duties of the Caliph are listed. One of them isof interest.

O25.9-8 and if the area has a border adjacent to enemy lands, an eighth duty arises, namely to undertake jihad against enemies, dividing the spoils of battle among combatants, and setting aside fifth (def: o10.3) for deserving recipients.

Riyad-us-Saliheen, Book 11, Chapter 234 lists several relevant ayat and many relevant ahadith, with commentary.
Other relevant ayat are translated and explained, along with relevant ahadith in the following topics in Ibn Kathir’s Tafsir. These demonstrate the obligation of Jihad, supremacism & triumphalism.

I have now made available to you ample evidence of the fact that Islam is a war cult, not a “great religion of peace”. If you will turn to Sahih Bukhari and read these books, you will know that Moe was a warmonger. That should be sufficient to convince you that Islam has not been hijacked by a violent minority of extremists.

Previous posts in this series:

January 29, 2009 Posted by | Religion of Peace | | 4 Comments

Its Shari’ah, Stupid #24


In this twenty-fourth installment of Offensive Jihad in Fiqh, we turn to another modern authority.

The Muslim Brotherhood founder Hasan al-Banna, wrote in his text Jihad to offensive jihad decreed by Muhammad, and that the edict is still legitimate.

The verses of the Qur’an and the Sunnah […] summon people in general […] to jihad, to warfare, to the armed forces, and all means of land and sea fighting.
All Muslims Must Make Jihad
Jihad is an obligation from Allah on every Muslim and cannot be ignored nor evaded. Allah has ascribed great importance to jihad and has made the reward of the martyrs and the fighters in His way a splendid one. Only those who have acted similarly and who have modeled themselves upon the martyrs in their performance of jihad can join them in this reward. Furthermore, Allah has specifically honoured the Mujahideen {those who wage jihad} with certain exceptional qualities, both spiritual and practical, to benefit them in this world and the next. Their pure blood is a symbol of victory in this world and the mark of success and felicity in the world to come.
Those who can only find excuses, however, have been warned of extremely dreadful punishments and Allah has described them with the most unfortunate of names. He has reprimanded them for their cowardice and lack of spirit, and castigated them for their weakness and truancy. In this world, they will be surrounded by dishonour and in the next they will be surrounded by the fire from which they shall not escape though they may possess much wealth. The weaknesses of abstention and evasion of jihad are regarded by Allah as one of the major sins, and one of the seven sins that guarantee failure.
Islam is concerned with the question of jihad and the drafting and the mobilisation of the entire Umma {the global Muslim community} into one body to defend the right cause with all its strength than any other ancient or modern system of living, whether religious or civil. The verses of the Qur’an and the Sunnah of Muhammad (PBUH) are overflowing with all these noble ideals and they summon people in general (with the most eloquent expression and the clearest exposition) to jihad, to warfare, to the armed forces, and all means of land and sea fighting.
[…]
The Scholars on Jihad
I have just presented to you some verses from the Qur’an and the Noble Ahadith concerning the importance of jihad. Now I would like to present to you some of the opinions from jurisprudence of the Islamic Schools of Thought including some latter day authorities regarding the rules of jihad and the necessity for preparedness. From this we will come to realise how far the ummah has deviated in its practice of Islam as can be seen from the consensus of its scholars on the question of jihad.
The author of the ‘Majma’ al-Anhar fi Sharh Multaqal-Abhar’, in describing the rules of jihad according to the Hanafi School, said: ‘Jihad linguistically means to exert one’s utmost effort in word and action; in the Sharee’ah {Sharia — Islamic law} it is the fighting of the unbelievers, and involves all possible efforts that are necessary to dismantle the power of the enemies of Islam including beating them, plundering their wealth, destroying their places of worship and smashing their idols. This means that jihad is to strive to the utmost to ensure the strength of Islam by such means as fighting those who fight you and the dhimmies {non-Muslims living under Islamic rule} (if they violate any of the terms of the treaty) and the apostates (who are the worst of unbelievers, for they disbelieved after they have affirmed their belief).
It is fard (obligatory) on us to fight with the enemies. The Imam must send a military expedition to the Dar-al-Harb {House of War — the non-Muslim world} every year at least once or twice, and the people must support him in this. If some of the people fulfill the obligation, the remainder are released from the obligation. If this fard kifayah (communal obligation) cannot be fulfilled by that group, then the responsibility lies with the closest adjacent group, and then the closest after that etc., and if the fard kifayah cannot be fulfilled except by all the people, it then becomes a fard ‘ayn (individual obligation), like prayer on everyone of the people.
[…]
The scholarly people are of one opinion on this matter as should be evident and this is irrespective of whether these scholars were Mujtahideen or Muqalideen and it is irrespective of whether these scholars were salaf (early) or khalaf (late). They all agreed unanimously that jihad is a fard kifayah imposed upon the Islamic ummah in order to spread the Da’wah of Islam, and that jihad is a fard ‘ayn if an enemy attacks Muslim lands. Today, my brother, the Muslims as you know are forced to be subservient before others and are ruled by disbelievers. Our lands have been besieged, and our hurruma’at (personal possessions, respect, honour, dignity and privacy) violated. Our enemies are overlooking our affairs, and the rites of our din are under their jurisdiction. Yet still the Muslims fail to fulfill the responsibility of Da’wah that is on their shoulders. Hence in this situation it becomes the duty of each and every Muslim to make jihad. He should prepare himself mentally and physically such that when comes the decision of Allah, he will be ready.
I should not finish this discussion without mentioning to you that the Muslims, throughout every period of their history (before the present period of oppression in which their dignity has been lost) have never abandoned jihad nor did they ever become negligent in its performance, not even their religious authorities, mystics, craftsmen, etc. They were all always ready and prepared. For example, Abdullah ibn al Mubarak, a very learned and pious man, was a volunteer in jihad for most of his life, and ‘Abdulwahid bin Zayd, a sufi and a devout man, was the same. And in his time, Shaqiq al Balkhi, the shaykh of the sufis encouraged his pupils towards jihad. …
Associated Matters Concerning Jihad
Many Muslims today mistakenly believe that fighting the enemy is jihad asghar (a lesser jihad) and that fighting one’s ego is jihad akbar (a greater jihad). The following narration [athar] is quoted as proof: “We have returned from the lesser jihad to embark on the greater jihad.” They said: “What is the greater jihad?” He said: “The jihad of the heart, or the jihad against one’s ego.”
This narration is used by some to lessen the importance of fighting, to discourage any preparation for combat, and to deter any offering of jihad in Allah’s way. This narration is not a saheeh (sound) tradition: The prominent muhaddith Al Hafiz ibn Hajar al-Asqalani said in the Tasdid al-Qaws:
‘It is well known and often repeated, and was a saying of Ibrahim ibn ‘Abla.’
Al Hafiz Al Iraqi said in the Takhrij Ahadith al-Ahya’:
’Al Bayhaqi transmitted it with a weak chain of narrators on the authority of Jabir, and Al Khatib transmitted it in his history on the authority of Jabir.’
Nevertheless, even if it were a sound tradition, it would never warrant abandoning jihad or preparing for it in order to rescue the territories of the Muslims and repel the attacks of the disbelievers. Let it be known that this narration simply emphasises the importance of struggling against one’s ego so that Allah will be the sole purpose of everyone of our actions.
Other associated matters concerning jihad include commanding the good and forbidding the evil. It is said in the Hadeeth: “One of the greatest forms of jihad is to utter a word of truth in the presence of a tyrannical ruler.” But nothing compares to the honour of shahadah kubra (the supreme martyrdom) or the reward that is waiting for the Mujahideen.
Epilogue
My brothers! The ummah that knows how to die a noble and honourable death is granted an exalted life in this world and eternal felicity in the next. Degradation and dishonour are the results of the love of this world and the fear of death. Therefore prepare for jihad and be the lovers of death. Life itself shall come searching after you.
My brothers, you should know that one day you will face death and this ominous event can only occur once. If you suffer on this occasion in the way of Allah, it will be to your benefit in this world and your reward in the next. And remember brother that nothing can happen without the Will of Allah: ponder well what Allah, the Blessed, the Almighty, has said:
‘Then after the distress, He sent down security for you. Slumber overtook a party of you, while another party was thinking about themselves (as to how to save themselves, ignoring the others and the Prophet) and thought wrongly of Allah – the thought of ignorance. They said, “Have we any part in the affair?” Say you (O Muhammad): “Indeed the affair belongs wholly to Allah.” They hide within themselves what they dare not reveal to you, saying: “If we had anything to do with the affair, none of us would have been killed here.” Say: “Even if you had remained in your homes, those for whom death was decreed would certainly have gone forth to the place of their death: but that Allah might test what is in your hearts; and to purify that which was in your hearts (sins), and Allah is All-Knower of what is in (your) hearts.”‘ {Sura 3:154}
  • The verses of the Qur’an and the Sunnah […] summon people in general […] to jihad,
  • All Muslims Must Make Jihad
  • Jihad is an obligation from Allah on every Muslim and cannot be ignored nor evaded
  • abstention and evasion of jihad are regarded by Allah as one of the major sins
  • The verses of the Qur’an and the Sunnah of Muhammad (PBUH) are overflowing with all these noble ideals and they summon people in general (with the most eloquent expression and the clearest exposition) to jihad, to warfare, to the armed forces, and all means of land and sea fighting.
  • it is the fighting of the unbelievers
  • to dismantle the power of the enemies of Islam including beating them, plundering their wealth, destroying their places of worship and smashing their idols.
  • The Imam must send a military expedition to the Dar-al-Harb {House of War — the non-Muslim world} every year at least once or twice
  • jihad is a fard kifayah imposed upon the Islamic ummah in order to spread the Da’wah of Islam

January 29, 2009 Posted by | Religion of Peace | Leave a comment

Its Shari’ah, Stupid #11


In this eleventh installment examining Jihad references in Fiqh, we can observe the application of Islamic doctrine in the conquest of India.

Ziauddin Barani, d. 1357, historiker och politisk skriftställare i Indien. Fatawa-i Jahandari, cit. ur Mohammad Habib, The Political Theory of the Delhi Sultanate (Allahabad 1961), s. 46-7.

The Muslim king will not be able to establish the honour of theism (tauhid) and the supremacy of Islam unless he strives with all his courage to overthrow infidelity and to slaugthers its leaders (imams), who in India are the Brahmans. He should make a firm resolve to overpower, capture, enslave and degrade the infidels. All the strength and power of the king and of the holy warriors of Islam should be concentrated in holy campaigns and holy wars; and they should risk themselves in the enterprise so that the true Faith may uproot the false creeds, and then it will look as if these false creeds had never existed because they have been deprived of all their glamour. […]

The majority of religious scholars and wise men of early (Islamic) as well as later time have been sure that if Muslim kings strive with all their might and power and the power of all their supporters on this path, the following objects will be attained: the true Faith will gain a proper ascendancy over the false creeds; the True Word will be honoured; the traditions of infidelity and polytheism will be weakened; Musalmans will be favoured and honoured; infidels and men of bad faith will be faced with destitution and disgrace; the orders of the unlawful state and the opposed creeds will be erased; the laws of the shari’at will be enforced on the seventy-two communities; and the enemies of God and the Prophet will be condemned, banished, repudiated, and terrorised.

Muslim Kings and their armies must strive courageously, risking their lives to overthrow Kuffar regimes, slaughter their clerics, capture, enslave and degrade Kuffar.  Thus Muslims will be favored & honored, Kuffar will be destitute & disgraced, Shari’ah enforced and infidels terrorized.

See how sweet, benign and peaceful Islam is?  Got a clue yet?

January 29, 2009 Posted by | Religion of Peace | Leave a comment

Its Shari’ah, Stupid #10


Ibn Taymiyya returns in the tenth installment of offensive Jihad in Fiqh. Its Shari’ah, Stupid,  and it is based on the Qur’an & Sunnah.  I have added links where possible; click to verify.

Ibn Taymiyya, cit. ur Henri Laoust, Le traité de droit public d’Ibn Taymiya (Beirut 1948)

In ordering jihad Allah has said: ”Fight them until there is no persecution and religion becomes Allah’s”. [2:189] (s. 21) [2:193]
Allah has, in fact, repeated this obligation [to fight] and has glorified jihad in most of the Medina suras: he has stigmatized those who neglected to do so, and treated them as hypocrites and cowards. (s. 123) [9:124-125]
It is impossible to count the number of times when jihad and its virtues are extolled in the Book and the Sunna. Jihad is the best form of voluntary service that man consecrates to Allah. (s. 125)
Therefore, since jihad is divinely instituted, and its goal is that religion reverts in its entirety to Allah and to make Allah’s word triumph, whoever opposes the realization of this goal will be fought, according to the unanimous opinion of Muslims.
Jews and Christians, as well as Zoroastrians (Magians), must be fought until they embrace Islam or pay the jizya without recriminations. Jurisconsults do not agree on the question of knowing if the jizya should be imposed on other categories of infidels; on the other hand, all consider that it should not be required of Arabs [hence they should convert to Islam or be killed or expelled]. (s. 130)


  • Muslims are obligated to fight.
  • Jihad is glorified.
  • Those who neglect it are stigmatized.
  • The goal is Islam’s triumph.
  • Whoever opposes it will be fought.
  • People of the Book must be fought to extortion.
  • Others must be converted or killed.

Got a clue yet?

January 29, 2009 Posted by | Religion of Peace | Leave a comment

Its Shari’ah, Stupid #6


This is the sixth in a series of posts on Jihad in Fiqh. Al-Ghazali confirms the one ghazwat per year minimum requirement.

al-Ghazali, d. 1111, shafi’i, sufi. Kitab al-Wagiz fi fiqh madhab al-imam al-Safi’i (Beirut 1979), s. 186, 190-1, 199-200, 202-3, övers. Michael Schub.

One must go on jihad (i.e. warlike razzias or raids) at least once a year […] one may use a catapult against them [non-Muslims] when they are in a fortress, even if among them are women and children.
  • One must go on jihad (i.e. warlike razzias or raids) at least once a year

This matches Umdat as-Salik & the opinion of Al-Shafi’i. It is the law because of Allah’s command and Moe’s example.

January 29, 2009 Posted by | Religion of Peace | | Leave a comment

   

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