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Myth vs Fact #462


Myth Fact
Islam: Religion of peace. Malik’s Muwatta Book 21, Number 21.6.20:

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’z-Zinad that Said ibn al-Musayyab said, “People used to be given bonuses from the Khumus.”

Malik said, “That is the best of what I have heard on the matter.”

Malik was asked about bonuses and whether they were taken from the first of the spoils, and he said, “That is only decided according to the ijtihad of the Imam. We do not have a known reliable command about that other than it is up to the ijtihad of the Sultan. I have not heard that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave bonuses in all his raids. I have only heard that he gave bonuses in one of them, namely the day of Hunayn. It depends on the ijtihad of the Imam whether they are taken from the first of the spoils or what is after it.”

Tafsir

October 6, 2008 Posted by | Islam | , , | Leave a comment

Jihad: Part2


In the first installment, we delved into Surah Al-Baqarah, examining 2:216 and its tafsir. We learned that Jihad is holy fighting in Allah’s cause, that it is physical fighting, risking injury & death and that it is mandatory, not optional.  But how is it affected by later Surahs? Was it abrogated?   We’ll look to the next Surah, Al-Anfal, for part of the answer.

The name: Al-Anfal, is instructive. It means “the spoils”. That’s right, war booty. Why would Allah’s book, the scripture of the religion of peace, have a chapter named spoils? Perhaps because Jihad is mandatory in Islam.  Jihad, against whom?
In Surah Al-Anfal, Jihad is against pagans, particularly the Meccans. Before jumping for joy, believing the scope & term of the command to be limited, consider the translator’s commentary to 8:39, which is appended.

8:38. Say to those who have disbelieved, if they cease (from disbelief) their past will be forgiven. But if they return (thereto), then the examples of those (punished) before them have already preceded (as a warning).

8:39. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allâh) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allâh Alone [in the whole of the world ]. But if they cease (worshipping others besides Allâh), then certainly, Allâh is All-Seer of what they do.

(V.8:39) It is mentioned by some of the Islamic religious scholars that, that will be at the
time when Ise (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)  will descend on the earth, and
he will not accept any other religion except Islam ” The True Religion of Allah ” Islamic
monotheism).(V.8:39) A) See the footnote of (\/.2:193).[That note quotes one of the hadith cited by Ibn Kathir below.]

  • What are Muslims commanded to do? fight them
  • Who are they? those who have disbelieved
  • What are the terminal conditions?
    • no more disbelief
    • no more polytheism
    • religion for Allah alone.

Does this ayeh really mean what it says?

Allah then commanded fighting the disbelievers when He said:(…until there is no more Fitnah) meaning, Shirk. This is the opinion of Ibn `Abbas, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi`, Muqatil bin Hayyan, As-Suddi and Zayd bin Aslam.

Allah’s statement:

(…and the religion (all and every kind of worship) is for Allah (Alone).) means, `So that the religion of Allah becomes dominant above all other religions.‘ It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari said: “The Prophet was asked, `O Allah’s Messenger! A man fights out of bravery, and another fights to show off, which of them fights in the cause of Allah’ The Prophet said:

(He who fights so that Allah’s Word is superior, then he fights in Allah’s cause.) In addition, it is reported in the Two Sahihs: (I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight the people until they proclaim, `None has the right to be worshipped but Allah’. Whoever said it, then he will save his life and property from me, except for cases of the law, and their account will be with Allah.)… The Order to fight until there is no more Fitnah

In confirming what we already knew, Ibn Kathir cited the two ahadith I planned to use,  I linked to them in line so that you can verify them.

Moe’s statement that he was ordered to fight the people until they become Muslim, that they thereby save their lives and property from him, clearly confirms the order to fight contained in 8:39.

That is not the end of the matter for Al-Anfal.

8:57. So if you gain the mastery over them in war, punish them severely in order to disperse those who are behind them, so that they may learn a lesson.

8:60. And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war (tanks, planes, missiles, artillery, etc.) to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allah does know. And whatever you shall spend in the Cause of Allah shall be repaid unto you, and you shall not be treated unjustly.

8:65O Prophet (Muhammad)! Urge the believers to fight. If there are twenty steadfast persons amongst you, they will overcome two hundred, and if there be a hundred steadfast persons they will overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they (the disbelievers) are people who do not understand.

8:67. It is not for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war (and free them with ransom) until he had made a great slaughter (among his enemies) in the land. You desire the good of this world (i.e. the money of ransom for freeing the captives), but Allâh desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allâh is All-Mighty, All-Wise.

8:69. So enjoy what you have gotten of booty in war, lawful and good, and be afraid of Allâh. Certainly, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

8:57 & 8:60 are tokens of terrorism: punishing defeated Kuffar so as to admonish others and building up as much force as possible to threaten other potential victims. 8:65 is an obvious example of warmongering. 8:67 makes great slaughter a prerequisite for admission to Paradise; it sanctifies genocide. 8:69, along with 8:1 & 8:41, shows us what the title of this Surah is all about.  They find ample reinforcement in this hadith:

Sahih Muslim Book 019, Number 4327:
The spoils of war were not made lawful for any people before us, This is because Allah saw our weakness and humility and made them lawful for us.

Next we turn to Surah Al-Taubah, next to last in order of revelation, to see if it confirms or abrogates our present discoveries.

October 6, 2008 Posted by | GWOT, Islam, Politics, Religion, Religion of Peace | , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Jihad: Part 1


This is the first of a series of posts on the subject of Jihad. The series will investigate Jihad with reference to the Qur’an, Hadith, Tafsir & Sharia.

Questions to be answered include:

  • What is Jihad?
    • Is it physical or spiritual?
    • Does it involve killing and being killed?
    • Is it obligatory or optional?
  • When is it performed?

Unless otherwise noted, Qur’an quotes in this series are from the Noble Qur’an, translated by Hilali & Khan. At the time of this writing, the King Fahd Qur’an Complex is not displaying the English translation.  Since Yet Another Qur’an Browser does not include the commentary, you will need a hard copy or this pdf version to verify citations to the translator’s foot notes.

Unless otherwise noted, Hadith quotes in this series are from the Compendium of Islamic Texts at USC. Unless otherwise noted, Sharia references are to The Reliance of the Traveller, a large, unformatted text file. You can search it with the Windows Search function (Ctrl F).

Unless otherwise noted, Tafsir quotes in this series are from Ibn Kathir’s Tafsir. Readers wishing to search the Tafsir by topic, verse fragments or ayat number are directed to Qtafsir.com, which has a functional search engine.

Unless otherwise noted, all emphasis has been added for clarity.

Most Qur’an translations do not use the word ‘Jihad”. Hilali & Khan include it parenthetically.

2:216. Jihâd (holy fighting in Allâh’s Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allâh knows but you do not know.

Compare some other translations of that ayeh.

Pickthall Warfare is ordained for you, though it is hateful unto you; but it may happen that ye hate a thing which is good for you, and it may happen that ye love a thing which is bad for you. Allah knoweth, ye know not.
Yusuf Ali Fighting is prescribed for you, and ye dislike it. But it is possible that ye dislike a thing which is good for you, and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But God knoweth, and ye know not.
Hilali-Khan Jihad (holy fighting in Allah’s Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know.
Shakir Fighting is enjoined on you, and it is an object of dislike to you; and it may be that you dislike a thing while it is good for you, and it may be that you love a thing while it is evil for you, and Allah knows, while you do not know.
Sher Ali Fighting is ordained for you, though it is repugnant to you; but it may be that you dislike a thing while it is good for you, and it may be that you like a thing while it is bad for you. ALLAH knows and you know not.
Khalifa Fighting may be imposed on you, even though you dislike it. But you may dislike something which is good for you, and you may like something which is bad for you. GOD knows while you do not know.
Arberry Prescribed for you is fighting, though it be hateful to you. Yet it may happen that you will hate a thing which is better for you; and it may happen that you will love a thing which is worse for you; God knows, and you know not.
Palmer Prescribed for you is fighting, but it is hateful to you. Yet peradventure that ye hate a thing while it is good for you, and peradventure that ye love a thing while it is bad for you; God knows, and ye,- ye do not know!
Rodwell War is prescribed to you: but from this ye are averse. Yet haply ye are averse from a thing, though it be good for you, and haply ye love a thing though it be bad for you: And God knoweth; but ye, ye know not.
Sale War is injoined you [against the infidels]; but this is hateful unto you: Yet perchance ye hate a thing which is better for you, and perchance ye love a thing which is worse for you: But God knoweth and ye know not.

Four words are used for the subject:

  • warfare: 1
  • war:  2
  • fighting:  6
  • Jihad: 1

That terminology suggests that Jihad is physical and violent.

Four words are used for the verb.

  • ordained 3
  • prescribed 3
  • injoined 1
  • enjoined 1

There can be no doubt that Jihad is mandatory, imposed upon Muslims against their will. Turn to Ibn Kathir for confirmation.

In this Ayah, Allah made it obligatory for the Muslims to fight in Jihad against the evil of the enemy who transgress against Islam. Az-Zuhri said, “Jihad is required from every person, whether he actually joins the fighting or remains behind. Whoever remains behind is required to give support, if support is warranted; to provide aid, if aid is needed; and to march forth, if he is commanded to do so.

Allah’s statement:  (…though you dislike it) means, `Fighting is difficult and heavy on your hearts.’ Indeed, fighting is as the Ayah describes it, as it includes being killed, wounded, striving against the enemies and enduring the hardship of travel. Allah then said:(. ..and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you) meaning, fighting is followed by victory, dominance over the enemy, taking over their lands, money and offspring. Allah continues:

(…and that you like a thing which is bad for you.)

This Ayah is general in meaning. Hence, one might covet something, yet in reality it is not good or beneficial for him, such as refraining from joining the Jihad, for it might lead to the enemy taking over the land and the government. Then, Allah said:

(Allah knows, but you do not know.) meaning, He has better knowledge than you of how things will turn out to be in the end, and of what benefits you in this earthly life and the Hereafter. Hence, obey Him and adhere to His commands, so that you may acquire the true guidance. Jihad is made Obligatory

  1. Fighting is obligatory, not optional, Allah ordained it.
  2. Jihad is required from every person,
    1. to march forth
    2. to aid
    3. to support
  3. Fighting is difficult and an emotional burden; includes:
    1. being killed
    2. wounded
    3. striving against the enemy
    4. hardship of travel.
  4. Fighting is good for you; has benefits:
    1. followed by victory
    2. dominance over the enemy
    3. taking his:
      1. lands
      2. money
      3. wives & children.
  5. Refraining from fighting has negative consequences:
    1. dispossession
    2. dominance by the enemy

WikiIslam tells us that Surah Al-Baqarah was #87 in sequence of revelation. Perhaps it has been abrogated by a later Surah. Al-Anfal was #88 and Al-Taubah was #113, we’ll consult them in the next installment to see whether 2:216 has been abrogated or confirmed.

October 6, 2008 Posted by | GWOT, Islam, Jihad, Politics, Religion, Religion of Peace | , | Leave a comment

   

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